Cluster beans, also known as guar, have come to be recognized as one of the significant commercial crops of semi-arid and arid areas. It has a high capacity to recover from water stress and a deep tap rooting system because it is a drought, hardly leguminous crop. The seed of the cluster bean contains about 30 to 33% gum in the endosperm. Farmers utilise the gum for many food items such as baked, ice creams, dairy products, etc. Traditionally, pods of the cluster bean are used for vegetable purposes. In addition, its plant, straw and seed are good sources of nutritional feed and fodder for livestock. Cluster bean is also raised as a cover crop and green manure.
How to Start Cluster Bean Farming
Let’s look at cluster bean farming in India with essential information.
The cluster bean is a tropical plant, and it requires a warm growing season. The crop requires 30 to 350 ℃ temperatures at the sowing time for proper germination, and 32 to 380 ℃ temperature leads to good vegetable growth. But high temperatures for cluster beans at the flowering stage can result in premature flower drops. This vegetable can tolerate temperatures as high as 45 to 460 ℃. It is an indeterminate and photosensitive crop.
Rotations and Intercropping
In the rainfed condition of Rajasthan, cluster bean is traditionally grown as a mixed crop with Bajra, moong, moth and sesame. But in some areas, the only crop of cluster beans is also being taken. As a result, farmers can successfully intercrop the Cluster beans with millet in a 2:1 row ratio of cluster bean and pearl millet. This system is profitable as compared to the sole crop of Bajra.
Farmers can grow the cluster bean in a variety of soils. The crops grow best on well-drained, upland sandy loam and loam soils. It does not thrive well on waterlogged and very heavy soils. It also does not grow well in alkaline and saline soils. You can raise it successfully in the soil with having pH of 7 to 8.5. However, a tractor helps to till up the soil to slice dice and chop the soil after a crop has been removed. Therefore you should choose the best tractor. And you can check the tractor price online.
You should well prepare the land for good germination. You should keep a fine texture, free from weeds and not too many clods. There is no need to prepare a very fine farm. The first ploughing should be done with a turning plough or disc harrow to loosen the soil at least 20-25 cm deep. After this, one or two cross harrowing or ploughing should be done. You should Planking after ploughing so that the soil is well pulverised and levelled. The proper level of the ground is required for good drainage.
Seed and Sowing Time
The seeds’ quality is of utmost importance to maintain optimum plant conditions. Certified seeds of improved varieties obtained from reliable sources should be used for sowing. The seeds produced by farmers should be graded before sowing. Throw away very small, shrivelled and damaged seeds. Only coarse seeds which are free from weed seeds and other impurities should be used for sowing purposes. In rain-fed conditions, you should sow the crop in the first fortnight of July on the arrival of the monsoon. A delay in sowing after July 15 may result in a yield reduction. In the irrigation condition, you can sow it till the last week of July.
Time of planting also plays a very important role in the crop grown in the summer season. February to March is a suitable time for sowing cluster beans for a summer crop. Flowering may be affected due to delay in sowing, and high temperature, resulting in reduced seed yield. Therefore, timely sowing is a very important non-monetary input for a summer crop. At the time of sowing summer cluster beans, the temperature should be 25 to 300 ℃.
It is observed that most of the farmers follow the broadcast method of sowing. But to ensure uniform germination, maintain optimum plant population, and for easy interbreeding operation, sowing should be done in rows. You should sow the branched varieties at 45 to 50 cm row to row and 10 cm plant to plant distance. You can sow with the help of a seed drill or cultivator. In the case of a single stem variety like RGC 1066, you should sow the crop at a 30 cm row to row distance.
Usually, you can grow the cluster bean as a rainfed crop in arid and semi-arid conditions. However, when irrigation facilities are available, irrigation should be provided whenever the crop faces a moisture deficit. You should give life-saving irrigation to the crop, especially at the stage of flowering and seed formation.
When you want to get information about cluster bean cultivation, you should also know the equipment that will help to boost the yield. Rotavators, cultivators, tillers and tractors are essential in every cultivation. However, the AC tractor is the most reliable in farming. Therefore you can find the AC tractor price online.
For more information regarding cluster bean farming in India, stay tuned with us.